Discourse markers (Linkers, linking devices, conjuncts)
Words like ‘however’, ‘although’ and ‘Nevertheless’ – without words like these written text would not seem logical
Anaphoric – Backward e.g. “The tea has gone cold, lets have some more.” – referencing back to tea, more tea!
Cataphoric – Forward e.g. “When he arrived, John noticed that the door was open” – referencing forward
Exophoric – External e.g. “I get up. I clean the house.” – Its assumed the listeners understands what house the speaker is talking about.
Deictic – You only understand if you understand the context to which it is referring. E.g. “What we‘ve got here is a failure to communicate.” – You only understand where here is when you watch the film.
Ellipsis – Often found in spoken text. e.g. “Is Jan at work today? No, but Rob is [at work today].” The bracketed utterance is ellipsed.
e.g. “Do you have any sweets? Yes, I have some.” – Some substitutes sweets.
Parallelism – Parallelism is used as a rhetorical and stylistic device in literature, speeches, advertising, and popular songs e.g. She saw a van, car, and bicycle collide
Cohesion through tense, article use